Cayman Islands (YET) in Italy

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According to Shipping Notice 03/2017 released on 19st December 2017 by the Maritime Authority of the Cayman Islands, pleasure yachts registered in the Cayman Islands are now finally allowed to obtain Yacht Engaged in Trade Certification (YET). This certification includes a Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC) and temporary Certificate(s) of British Registry for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (temp COBR YET) enabling the yacht to charter up to 84 days per calendar year in European (EU) waters. Please find hereby a quick summary of what the YET programme is:

A YET can be defined as a yacht of 24 metres or more in load line length, holding a valid Certificate of Class, which is voluntary compliant with all applicable commercial standards and regulations; which has obtained and maintains a Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance, allowing the yacht to obtain temporary Certificate(s) for a Yacht Engaged in Trade, and therefore to engaging in up to 84 days of charter per calendar year with no more than 12 passengers.

The main benefit of the program is flexibility; owners do not have to choose anymore between purely private or commercial registration. Owners can now use their yacht privately whilst being able to offset some of the running costs by offering their yacht for charter. Unlike commercially registered vessels, owners need not sign a charter agreement nor pay VAT on their own use. Unlike yachts operating under the switching regime, there is no need as well for switching between pleasure and commercial registration every time yachts change their mode of operation and use, nor to proceed with export/import formalities, leave the EU and visit a third country port each time yachts switch between pleasure and commercial use.

To be eligible to register as YETs, a yacht must either be in possession of a Value Added Tax [VAT] paid certificate or other document proving that the yacht has a VAT paid status; or operate in EU waters under the Temporary Admission [TA] regime in accordance with EU regulations meaning the yacht can enter and stay in EU waters for a period of up to 18 months without being liable to pay VAT on the hull. This second option is only available for yachts ultimately owned by non-EU residents and owned by non-EU Companies.

Pleasure yachts in possession of a valid Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC) should expect to be inspected and audited as commercial yachts. Furthermore, private yachts operating under temporary Certificate(s) for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (and not only under private certificate of registration) shall be subject to inspection and control measures under the Paris Memorandum of Understanding.
For the time being pleasure yachts which are operating under a temporary YET certificate can only start their charters in Monaco, France and in Italy under certain conditions.

Please find below a quick summary of the most important points about YET:


The purpose of this Shipping Notice is to define the procedure to be followed for a Pleasure yacht registered in the Cayman Islands to obtain Yacht Engaged in Trade certification.


This Shipping Notice is applicable to all Cayman Islands registered pleasure yachts that seek to charter in EU waters, which have a VAT paid status or operate under Temporary Admission regime in EU waters.

This Shipping Notice also sets out the technical requirements necessary to qualify as a Yacht Engage in Trade.


At the present, the Cayman Island Shipping Registry offer yachts two means of registration:

  1. full registration ‘pleasure’ and
  2. full registration ‘commercial’

The Yacht Engaged in Trade (YET) program has been developed as a new dual use operation program to offer a third means of registration for commercially compliant yachts. This is to allow owners the flexibility they require to operate their yacht privately with the option to charter their yacht for up to 84 days per year while taking into account EU VAT and Port State Control requirements.

Yachts meeting the requirements of this Shipping Notice will be issued with:

  • a Cayman Islands Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC) and
  • temporary Certificate(s) of British Registry for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (temp COBR YET) covering the charter periods or periods of commercial promotion. These certificates authorize yachts to charter for up to 84 days per calendar year in European (EU) waters.

Yachts wishing to engage in trade activities are required to be in compliance with:

  1. the Merchant Shipping (Vessels in Commercial Use for Sport & Pleasure) Regulations, 2002;
  2. the applicable sections of the Large Yacht Code;
  3. this Shipping Notice; and
  4. all other applicable and international requirements.


  1. Ultimate Beneficial Owners can privately use their yacht without losing the option to charter the yacht on an occasional basis to offset the annual running costs
  2. Eliminates the need for switching between pleasure and commercial registration every time the yacht is to change its mode of operation and use
  3. Eliminates the need to proceed to export/import formalities and the need to leave the EU and visit a third country post each time the yacht is to switch between pleasure and commercial use
  4. Ultimate Beneficial Owners do not need to sign a charter agreement when using their own yacht on a private basis
  5. Ultimate Beneficial Owners do not need to pay VAT on their own use
  6. No risk of substantial penalties for extensive pleasure use
  7. VAT Exemption is available on works for non-VAT paid yachts (inward processing relief regime)
  8. The 18-month Temporary Admission allowance period is paused each time the yacht is used as a Yacht Engaged in Trade (YET) and placed under Temporary Admission for Commercial Activity (TACA YET)


  1. The yacht must be 24 metres or more in length
  2. The yacht must be in possession of a Cayman Islands Pleasure Certificate of British Registry (Pleasure COBR)
  3. The yacht must successfully undergo an initial Compliance Verification survey in accordance with section 6 of this Shipping Notice
  4. The yacht must comply fully with the requirements of the relevant chapters of the Large Yacht Code
  5. The yacht must be classed by a Classification Society recognised by the Administration
  6. The yacht must operate in full commercial compliance at all times, whether engaged in trade or not; including full commercial compliance with all applicable national requirements and international Conventions’
  7. Yachts with a gross tonnage of less than 500, shall implement a Safety Management System as per the requirements of the Large Yacht Code. There is no requirement for a yacht under 500 gross tonnage to engage the services of a shore based company or Designated Person Ashore.
  8. The yacht must have a documented planned maintenance system for all identified critical equipment
  9. The yacht must hold a valid International Load Line Certificate issued in accordance with the Large Yacht Code for at least a short-range yacht
  10. The yacht must be issued with a Cayman Islands Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC) and temporary Certificate(s) of British Registry for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (temp COBR YET) covering the charter periods or periods of commercial promotion


  1. Whilst engaged in trade and operating under a temporary Certificate of British Registry as a Yacht Engaged in Trade (temp COBR YET), yachts are subject to any operational limitation included in the Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC)
  2. Commercial operations / charters are limited to a maximum of 84 days per calendar year
  3. A maximum of 12 passengers may be carried
  4. Charters are currently limited to Monaco and French waters
  5. Owner’s pleasure use is not allowed during the period of validity of the temporary Certificate(s) of British Registry for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (temp COBR YET)
  6. A signed Master’s Limited Trade Declaration for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (YET) shall be made and retained for inspection on board
  7. Yachts certified as Yachts Engaged in Trade are not entitled to apply for any VAT exemptions on fuel or supplies


  1. The registered owner of the yacht must submit registration application form and complete the applicable ‘Yacht Engaged in Trade’ (YET) declaration in section 5 of the registered form
  2. The yacht owner, manager or representative shall submit all applicable documentation to the Administration for Pre-Registration Vetting
  3. If not already in possession of a Large Yacht Code Compliance Certificate, the yacht must successfully undergo an initial Compliance Verification survey in accordance with section 7 of this Shipping Notice upon which a Yacht Engaged in Trade Certificate of Compliance (YET COC) shall be issued
  4. The yacht owner shall arrange for EU customs formalities to be addressed by the Customs Broker in the name of the Importer/Exporter
  5. The yacht must either:
  • Be in possession of a Value Added Tax (VAT) paid certificate or other document proving that the yacht has a VAT paid status; or
  • Operate in EU waters under the Temporary Admission (TA) regime in accordance with EU regulations which allows the yacht to enter and stay in EU waters for a period of up to 18 months without being liable to pay VAT on the full. This option is only available to yachts ultimately owned by non-EU residents and owned by non-EU Companies.

Note: a Customs Broker is only required to carry out customs formalities on behalf of the Importer/Exporter for yachts operating under Temporary Admission (TA).

The procedure includes:

  • The yacht being placed under Temporary Admission (TA) followed by Temporary Admission for Commercial Activity for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (TACA YET);
  • Issuance of the relevant oral declaration for the placement of the yacht under Temporary Admission (TA);
  • Issuance of the relevant import/export forms to provide clearance in and out for the yacht from the Temporary Admission for Commercial Activity for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (TACA YET) regime, during the period trade activities are undertaken.
  1. At the end of the charter or period of commercial promotion, the Importer/Exporter shall remove the yacht from the Temporary Admission for Commercial Activity for a Yacht Engaged in Trade (TACA YET) regime.

Part of the hereby provided info has been provided by other site. More info will follow soon. Please stay tuned and always email to to know more about new laws and rules applying in the Med.

Download CISR Shipping Notice 03/2017

VAT News 2018



On September 2017, the Italian Tax Authorities (Agenzia Delle Entrate) and the Association of Italian Shipbuilding Industry (“Unione Nazionale Cantieri e Industrie Nautiche”, “UCINA”), issued the general guidelines on tax and yachting matters (Guidelines), contained in the book “Nautica & Fisco (see also”. The Guidelines provide further explanations about VAT exemption for transactions related to vessels:

a. used for commercial purposes
b. used for navigation on the high seas (“navi adibite alla navigazione in alto mare”).

Primarily, on 12 January 2017, Agenzia Delle Entrate issued the Resolution 2/E providing certain clarifications on the definition of vessels used for navigation on the high seas for the purpose of the application of the exemption regime under Article 8-bis, letter a) and letter d) of the Presidential Decree No. 633/1972.
Specifically, the above mentioned Article 8-bis reproduces the content of Article 148, letter a), c) and d) of Directive 112/2006/EU, providing for an exemption of certain operations relating to “vessels used for navigation on the high seas and for carrying passengers for reward or used for the purpose of commercial, industrial or fishing activities”.
In this respect, taking into account the position expressed by the Court of Justice of European Union, the Agenzia Delle Entrate pointed out that:

1. In order to benefit of the exemption regime, the condition that the vessel shall be “used for navigation on the high seas” refers to vessels carrying passengers for reward, or used for the purpose of commercial, industrial or fishing activities, but it does not refer to vessels used for rescue or assistance at sea or to vessels engaged in inshore fishing (CJEU, Elmeka, joint proceedings C-181/04 e C-183/04).

2. For VAT purposes, “high seas” shall be intended as that part of the sea exceeding the maximum limit of 12 nautical miles from the base lines under International Law of the Sea (Article 3 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982).

3. In order to assure that the exemption regime under Article 8-bis of Presidential Decree 633/1972 is applied, with limited reference to the cases provided by the law (i.e., only to vessels actually and for the predominant part navigating on the high seas), it not sufficient to exclusively take into account the length or tonnage of the vessel.

For the above reasons, the Agenzia Delle Entrate clarifies that “a vessel can be considered as used for navigation on the high seas if, with reference to the preceding year, she has effected, by more than 70%, voyages in the high seas (i.e., beyond the 12 nautical miles)” and “such condition shall be verified for each tax period based on official documentation”.

With specific regards to the adequate “official documentation” necessary to prove the prevalence of voyages carried at the high seas, the Resolution No. 6/E, released by the Italian Tax Authority (Agenzia delle Entrate) on 16th January 2018, provides the below list of documents that shall be considered as “official”:

i. the Log Book (also known as ship’s log or captain’s log), according to articles 169-173 and 174 of the Italian Navigation Code (Codice della Navigazione).
ii. The maps of voyages as well as the data extracted from the ship’s tracking or identification systems (for instance, with no limitation, the A.I.S., GPS, etc.).
iii. The charter contracts, invoices and relevant payments.

As of today, such documentation is absolutely necessary to prove the “high sea cruising condition”. If the Company owning the vessel is not able to provide the suppliers with all or any of the above listed official documents, a mere statement issued by the yacht Owner/Master (self-declaration) declaring the “high sea cruising status” of the vessel might suffice just if the Declarant (Owner, Captain, Master, Manager, or any other person in charge for this, clearly listing his connection with the vessel or position on board, etc.), clearly explains the reasons why it is not possible to provide the required documents.


Pursuant to the Guidelines and according to the provisions contained into the Resolution No. 6/E dated 16th January 2018, “voyage” shall mean any cruise carried out between ports (Italian, EU and/or non-EU ports) where embarkation/disembarkation of goods and/or people take place or more generally where said ports are used by the vessel for the purposes of carrying its commercial activity. Within the same Resolution (6/E) the Italian Tax Authority clarified that for “voyage” shall be intended also any cruise starting from and coming to the same port (also known as “circular cruises” or “circular voyages”). If during a “circular voyage” (starting from and coming to the same Italian port) the 12 nautical miles at some point will be crossed by the vessel to sail the high seas, said voyage is qualified as an “international voyage” (voyage at the high seas). Further, any voyage entirely carried outside the Italian territorial waters (exempli gratia: any charter contract having both embarkation and disembarkation places in France) shall be considered as international voyages (voyage at the high seas) as well. If on the contrary a “circular voyage” will only take place within the 12 nm Italian territorial line, said voyage cannot be considered as an “international voyage”.

Lastly – still in respect of the calculation of the 70% of voyages – the Italian Tax Authority explained, with Resolution 6/E, that any displacement (moving from/to) of the vessel to one other port or shipyard for technical reasons (even if those reasons are connected to the vessel’s commercial activity) cannot be considered as a “voyage” and so cannot be included into the calculation of the 70% of voyages.

Moreover, the “high sea cruising condition” shall be verified each year. In case of a percentage of voyages greater than 70% during a calendar year, the VAT exemption pursuant to Article 8-bis applies to the following calendar year. In the event that the percentage above does not exceed 70% during the calendar year, it shall be no longer possible to enjoy the VAT exemption as from 1 January of the following year, except in the special cases listed hereinafter:

a. the vessel is under construction, or
b. the vessel has not yet carried out any voyage in the sea.

Only in these cases, it could be possible to apply the VAT exemption on the basis of a statement declaring the intention to use the vessel on the high seas. Therefore, in order to issue an invoice VAT exempted under Article 8-bis, the supplier shall require the owner or the person responsible for the yacht (for example, the master of the yacht) to provide a statement attesting: the declarant’s personal data, the legal status of the declarant in relation to the vessel and the period for which the statement is provided. However, in the following year, the declarant shall verify if “70% high sea voyages condition” is met and, in the event of a failure in reaching the 70% of voyages on high sea, he shall inform the supplier accordingly. On the contrary, if such condition is met, the declarant shall provide the supplier with the official documentation proving that voyages on high sea, as described above, have been carried out.


To enjoy the VAT exemption, in addition to the “high sea cruising condition”, another condition shall be met. Said condition is that the vessel must be used for commercial purposes. Therefore, any transaction related to vessel intended for sport or pleasure purposes shall be excluded from the VAT exemption.
Firstly, it has to be pointed out that, VAT exemption shall apply, in any case, to vessels registered in the International Register, since such registration implies that the registered vessels shall be used for commercial purposes only.
In addition, the Italian pleasure yacht code (“Codice della Nautica da Diporto”) provides a list of cases of commercial use of pleasure yacht, including, charter, leasing, professional teaching of navigation and activities carried out by diving centres using the vessel as basis for diving; for which, generally, the VAT exemption also applies.
However, to benefit of the VAT exemption, the commercial use of pleasure yachts shall be attested by a public register (Italian, International or foreign). Hence, as a general rule, the relevant foreign Harbor Authority or the relevant foreign shipping register shall indicate the use for business purposes of the vessel by inserting, for example, the wording “Commercial Yacht”/“Commercial Vessel/ Yacht in commercial use” in the relevant records. The VAT exemption, as above described, also applies to any advanced payment made during the construction of pleasure yachts, in accordance with the terms of the contract executed between the parties. When the VAT exemption is required for the purchase of a new pleasure yacht, the seller shall require a certificate of the Company Register attesting that that the buyer’s core business is a commercial activity in the maritime sector.
Finally, it has to be underlined that, the transfer of a vessel, registered or to be registered for non-commercial use (private use), to a natural person, shall not qualify for VAT exemption.
Moreover, to register a pleasure yacht as having commercial purposes when it is conversely used for personal purposes may imply significant sanctions. In fact, by law, pleasure yacht used for commercial purposes must be exclusively used for the activities for which they are officially registered. Nevertheless, the use of private pleasure yacht for occasional charter activities is allowed by law, but it never can be qualified as commercial use for VAT exemption purpose.

Part of the hereby provided info has been provided by
For any questions or additional info please email us to

Download useful files and documents:

YW News “VAT” 2018 (pdf)
Resolution 6/E January 2018
Resolution 2/E Januery 2017

Italy Cancels VAT Rise


Sanremo, 21st December 2017



The Italian Council of Ministers has overturned plans and announced the country’s new financial measures for 2018. Italian value-added tax will not rise in 2018, although it is scheduled to increase in 2019 and 2020 asper below listed:

10% VAT will go up by 1.5% in January 2019 and a further 1.5% in 2020.
22% VAT will increase by 2.2% in 2019 and by an additional 0.7% in 2020 and another 0.1% in 2021.
Excise Tax will also go up in 2019.

Any question can be sent to

Up to Date Rules in Croatia

Hand writing Know The Rules with red marker on transparent wipe board.

After the VAT workshop conducted during MYBA 2017 by our staff and partners please find hereby a summary of the new rules about Croatia:

1. Charter business can be performed by NON EU and EU charter companies with commercially registered yachts

2. To set up a yacht for charter business in Croatia (approx. 10 – 14 days), a charter company needs:

a) To obtain VAT and PIN numbers with the Croatian tax office. The list of required papers that must be submitted depends on if the charter company is from the EU or outside the EU.

b) To list the yacht in “E-crew” ( a central online database ) of the Croatian Ministry of Maritime Affairs. The list of documents to submit depends on the GT and LOA of the yacht.

If all the papers are in order there will no longer be a need for a technical inspection of the yacht’s firefighting and safety equipment in Croatia before the beginning of its 1st charter.

3. All non-EU flagged commercial yachts will be required to obtain a charter license. There is no longer a limit on the yacht’s length in order to perform charters in Croatia. The license will be valid for the calendar year. The number of licenses issued might be limited based on the Croatian market supply situation.

4. VAT will be charged on all commercial yachts that start charters (embark guests) in 3rd countries, on a pro-rata basis, for the time spent in Croatia. For instance, if a yacht embarks guests in Montenegro and comes to Croatia for 6 days, charter guests will need to pay Croatian VAT on those 6 days.

5. All charter contracts with an embarkation port outside of the EU, and a disembarkation port inCroatia, and which are signed before the 1st of May, will be exempt from VAT charges on a pro-rata basis for the time the yacht will spend in Croatia.

6. VAT for charter activities with overnight stay is 13%. Daily charters are 25%

7. All commercial yachts need to have proof of their VAT status in the EU when entering Croatia

8. When embarking guests outside the EU, all commercial yachts need to have a charter contract when entering Croatia; and when leaving Croatia they need to have an invoice of payment of Croatian VAT issued by its local VAT representative

9. When embarking guests in another EU country, all commercial yachts need to possess a charter contract when entering Croatia and a pro-forma invoice for VAT payment in that country issued by a fiscal representative in that country

10. When embarking guests outside the EU, EU charter companies can use their own VAT number for VAT payment in Croatia on a pro-rata basis

11. Non Eu commercial yachts who do not possess a cabotage license can cruise in Croatian territorial waters only between international ports, to and from shipyards, and only with crew on board

Some details are still being clarified by the Ministry regarding how certain points above will be processed and controlled, so get in touch with us if you plan to charter this year in Croatia.
Setting up a charter business in Croatia is a pretty simple, straightforward and quick process if you have a quality, professional representative.
For more info please download the below pdf file from our partner MYS and feel always free to contact us to to get your dedicated estimate on costs.

VAT Guide by MYS Croatia

VAT Workshop at MYBA 2017


Yacht Welfare, Easy Tax, Tax Marine, MYS Croatia, Evolution Agents and Rosemont presented the VAT Workshop during MYBA 2017. We thank all the attendees for their partecipation and the important questions made which have definitely enriched the talk. At this link you will find the video of the VAT meeting. Stay tuned on for more news about VAT and fiscal matters on Charters in the Med! For any additional info please email us to

Monaco – Italy Tax Agreement


In early April 2017 an important taxation agreement between Monaco and Italy came into force and, as a direct result, Monaco now appears on the Italian ‘white list’ of tax compliant jurisdictions. The Agreement gives rise both to opportunities and challenges for those individuals who fall within its scope.
In March 2015, Monaco and Italy concluded the terms of the Agreement for the exchange of tax information between the two jurisdictions. However, it was not until earlier this month the Agreement completed the formal ratification process by the competent authorities in both Italy and Monaco.
With ratification the Italian authorities can request their Monaco counterparts to provide information on individuals who are Italian tax resident and who hold assets in the Principality. Furthermore, both states have the possibility for their respective tax authorities to conduct a tax audit in the counterpart state.
The Agreement also seeks to avoid the double taxation of income and also defines the concept of ‘tax residence’ in the two states.
The Agreement is an important change for those individuals who are tax residents in Italy and Monaco with economic interests in the other jurisdiction.
The Agreement should be seen in the context of the introduction of automatic exchange of information on financial accounts which came into effect on 1 April 2017 between Monaco and the European Union, including Italy. For more info please do not hesitate to contact us writing an email to

Withhold Tax 33% in France


Withholding tax on charter revenues: has this battle been definitively won? As you may have heard MYBA and ECPY members have recently been subjected to French tax inspections in their capacity as Stakeholders. In compliance with Article 182B of the French General Tax Code, French Fiscal Authorities wanted to apply a 33% withholding tax on charter funds held by Stakeholders based in France, in relation to the commercialactivity (charters) made into the French territory and territorial waters. The withholding would apply when charter funds were transferred to Owning Companies or Yacht Owners which did not have a permanent professional establishment (business) in France and were based in jurisdiction which did not have a double tax treaty with France.
MYBA and ECPY decided to seek the official position of the tax authorities at the ‘Direction de la Législation Fiscale (DLF) in Paris. They asserted that Stakeholders are only intermediaries of on charter revenues realised in France and not the debtors.
The first reply was unfavourable but MYBA and ECPY lodged an appeal for a second interpretation by the National College. The DLF has now replied favourably, indicating that “the Stakeholder is not liable to pay the withholding tax provided for under Article 182 B of the General Tax Code”.
This is of course a great success but this is only the first stage, as now MYBA and ECPY need to ensure that this national decision is implemented at local level for the ongoing cases.
But when the battle is won at local levels are the tax authorities going to accept defeat or are they going to try to find a new debtor?
There’s still plenty of grey areas around this … stay tuned, we will release up-to-date news as soon as possible.

For any additional info or questions needed please email us to
We are always at your disposal.

New French Social Security Laws


The French government has recently enacted a decree that states a new requirement for social security payments for all non-French seafarers (crew) based in France unless they are already paying for social security (national insurance) in another EU member state, or in any other national state that has an existing bilateral social security treaty with France.
This decree will come into force on 1st July 2017 and will apply to all seafarers resident or otherwise domiciled in France irrespective of whether their vessel (yacht) is private or commercially operated.

Please find links below to download an initial summary of the key points of the new French social security legislation, and two flow charts to help clarify the regulation. This information was prepared and released by Lesia Employment Services ICC Limited (Lesia) in conjunction with a major maritime law firm.

Lesia Summary on Social Charges
Employers’ social security obligations in Franceregarding crew members
Social security obligations of seafarers living in France and notworking on a French flagged vessel

Thanks to

VAT on Spanish Charters

Human face painted with flag of Spain

Please find below some important info to know about chartering in Spain:
As is well known, chartering in countries like France, Italy or Malta can benefit from really reduced VAT rates on charter fees. This is not the case in Spain. What is the reason why? Let’s find out what are the legal grounds on which this VAT reduction is based and what other implications this legal provision has.

Article 58 of EU Council Directive 2006/112/EC, VAT Directive, entitled “criterion of effective use and enjoyment”, provides that:

In order to avoid double taxation, non-taxation or distortion of competition, Member States may, with regard to the supply of the services referred to in Article 56(1) and with regard to the hiring out of means of transport:

(a) consider the place of supply of any or all of those services, if situated within their territory, as being situated outside the Community, if the effective use and enjoyment of the services takes place outside the Community;

(b) consider the place of supply of any or all of those services, if situated outside the Community, as being situated within their territory, if the effective use and enjoyment of the services takes place within their territory.

How does this affect chartering in the EU and more specifically chartering in Spain?

As the article lays down in its first paragraph, Member States may, which means this is an optional criterion which might be applied by each Member State or not. Having said this, we must distinguish what is stipulated in paragraphs (a) and (b).

Paragraph (a) – as it is clearly defined, the provision seeks to minimize VAT taxation applicable to certain services, among them the hiring out of means of transport (for instance charter), when part of the enjoyment takes place outside the Community. This provision or approach is in place in France or Italy which allows chartering in these countries to benefit from reduced VAT rates. However, this is not the case of Spain, which making use of its optional right, did not implement this provision in the internal Spanish VAT law. Therefore, chartering in Spain is subject to a flat VAT rate which does not benefit from any reduction even sailing beyond 12 nautical miles.

Paragraph (b) – the second part of the article seeks to subject to VAT certain services, which, although according to the rules on the place of supply can be understood to be provided outside the Community, their effective enjoyment takes place in the Community. This might be the case of a charter starting in Montenegro or Gibraltar, territories outside the Community, and visiting a Member State. There are certain countries which apply this approach, such as Italy. This is the case of Spain too. Spain implemented this provision in article 70.Two of the Spanish VAT law. Therefore, although not very well known, this rule is in force in Spain.

In practical terms, this would involve for instance that a charter starting in Gibraltar and visiting Spanish territory would oblige the yacht owning company to register for VAT in Spain and to pay to the Spanish tax authorities VAT on the length of the charter taking place in Spain.
Therefore, it cannot be said that the use and enjoyment provision is not in practice in Spain. It is, but unfortunately only the more burdensome part of the EU provision is applicable.

For further information, please email our Spanish referent Mr. Alex Chumillas to or send your inquiry to We are always pleased to assist you and remain at your disposal.
Thank you to our Spanish partner Mr. Alex Chumillas: